All Posts By

DealHQ Partners

Season 1 Episode 7 – A, B, C of Islamic Finance: Understanding the Islamic Financial Market

Simply is a sponsored podcast of DealHQ Partners, where we engage thought leaders on trending issues around law and business in the most simplistic manner.

On Episode 7, our Orinari Horsfall is joined by Dr. Basheer Oshodi, the CEO and co-founder of TrustBanc Arthur and a seasoned expert in ethical finance and non-interest banking, in a conversation on Islamic Finance- a constantly evolving global alternative to conventional finance. Specifically, the conversation assesses the trends, benefits and opportunities for Islamic Finance in the Nigerian financial marketplace. It also contemplates what actions can be taken to deepen the market.

 

Listen here:   linktr.ee/DealHQ

 

 

Mergers & Acquisitions – Practice Guide(Nigeria)

Over the past two years, the M&A landscape has experienced unprecedented levels of uncertainty. The period will undoubtedly be recognized as a reference point, much like the 2008 financial crisis. The 2022 Nigeria M&A Practice Guide is an outlook on the global and local M&A landscape since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. It discusses the reaction of the market during the heat of the pandemic and after. It also highlights hot-spot sectors for M&A in 2022 whilst mapping investor behavior and how this will influence investment decisions in 2022.

Click here to download PDF

PAN AFRICAN PAYMENTS SETTLEMENT SYSTEM (PAPSS)

PAN AFRICAN PAYMENTS SETTLEMENT SYSTEM (PAPSS): DELIVERING A FINANCIALLY INTEGRATED REGIONAL MARKET.

PAPSS is a cross-border payment and settlement market infrastructure established by– the African Export-Import Bank (“Afreximbank”) in collaboration with the West African Monetary Institute (WAMI) and African Continental Free Trade Area (“AFCFTA”) secretariat. The PAPSS platform was launched on the 13th of January 2022 in Accra, Ghana after a successful testing phase in the West African Zone which comprises Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

Heavy reliance on exchange currencies such as the US dollars, Euros and Pounds (“FX”) for payments processing, clearing and settlement on cross-border transactions has been a major impediment to regional trade. The PAPSS platform now seeks to enable easy and seamless payment processing, clearing and settlement for cross-border transactions in local currencies and in real-time, cutting out the need for FX and international settlement counterparties.

With the establishment of PAPSS, the need for international banks and conversion of local currencies to FX has been eliminated as funds can now be transferred directly between trade counterparties in their local currency. The system automatically validates fund transfers (checks for compliance and legality between trade countries) at near-instant speed thereby allowing for real-time settlement between initiator bank and recipient bank in any applicable currency.

PAPPS is an inclusive platform that integrates all payment service providers outside of the traditional banking systems including payment service providers, card schemes, and other intermediaries. Outside of business transactions, the platform also enables efficient and secured money flow within the retail end of the market by facilitating  salary payments, money transfers, shopping, or investment payment exchanges. This will bolster regional mobility and e-commerce, giving Africa the chance to truly morph into a single borderless market.

The PAPPS Infrastructure is driven by synergies between the Central Banks of the AFCFTA member countries with these reserve banks acting as secondary clearing agents for their respective countries whilst the AFREXIM Bank remains the primary clearing agent and will also be responsible for providing settlement guarantees and overdraft facilities required to preserve the integrity of the Marketplace. Interbank Settlement will be facilitated in USD with a multilateral netting arrangement between the Central Banks at 11:00 UTC daily.

In a bid to align and consolidate financial/trade policies of the different participating countries and to achieve financial oversight whilst preserving market integrity, the Central Banks remain at the apex of financial activities in the various participant countries, prescribing the minimum liquidity threshold for Direct Participants (these are financial institutions that maintain a settlement account with the relevant Central Bank, they are responsible for proving the needed liquidity to secure the pre-funding arrangement required to achieve Real-Time Gross Settlement in the PAPPS marketplace), the Central Banks also have the prerogative to prescribe nature and form of transactions eligible for settlement on the platform.

The new regional payment system is a laudable initiative which without doubt has the capacity to integrate Africa by enhancing payment efficiencies across the region and significantly reducing the incidental cost of currency conversion which prior to PAPPS cost the region circa USD5Billion per annum. Nonetheless, for the new market infrastructure to deliver economic prosperity to the region on a massive scale, it remains imperative that African Countries boost their export potential through improved manufacturing/production capacity and to bridge the massive infrastructure gaps needed to enable the mobility of goods and services across the region.

Click here to download PDF

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2022

Parameters and Fiscal Assumptions

The 2022 “budget for Economic Growth and Sustainability” was signed into law by President Muhammadu Buhari on Friday, 31st December 2021, two weeks after the National Assembly passed the bill.

The allocations in the budget were guided by six strategic objectives of the National Development Plan of 2021 to 2025, which are: diversifying the economy, with robust MSME growth; investing in critical infrastructure; strengthening security and ensuring good governance; enabling a vibrant, educated, and healthy populace; reducing poverty, and minimizing regional, economic, and social disparities.

Key Elements of the Budget: Expenditure Summary

The total estimated aggregate expenditure is N17.13tn which is N735.85bn more than the initially proposed sum of N16.39tn and represents a 17.57% increase over N14.57tn for 2021. The increase in the proposed expenditure is attributed to the introduction of 6,576 new projects and the reduction of the allocation to 10,733 projects by law makers.

  • Statutory transfer
  • Recurrent (non-debt) which is the largest expenditure is estimated to amount to N6.91tn, is 40.3% of total expenditure and 17.3% higher than the 2021 Budget.
  • Debt Service
  • Aggregate Capital Expenditure of N5.47tn accounts for 31.9% of total expenditure.
  • Sinking fund

N3.61tn is estimated for debt service and this represents 22% of total expenditure. This is a 15.7% increase from the N3.12tn allotted for debt service last year. This increase in public debt is a result of borrowings to put the economy back on track after 2 recessions.

Key Elements of the Budget: Revenue Summary

The estimated aggregate revenue to fund the 2022 budget is N10.7tn which is 32% higher than the 2021 estimate of N8.1tn. The major revenue generation strategies are as follows:

  • Enhancement of tax and excise revenues through policy reforms and tax administration measures;
  • Review of the policy effectiveness of tax waivers and concessions;
  • Boost of customs revenue through the e-Customs and Single Window initiatives (implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement may be a major driver for this strategy); and
  • Safeguard revenues from the oil and gas sector.

The government has also expressed its intention to strengthen the existing framework for concessions and Public Private Partnerships. There will also be a review of the Finance Act to input measures to aid the Strategic Revenue Growth Initiative (SGRI).

Key Elements of the Budget: Deficit, Financing, and Critical Ratios

The 2022 budget has a total fiscal deficit of about N6.39tn. This represents about 3.5% of the projected GDP of N184tn (this amount was stated by the Minister of Finance at the public presentation of the budget in October,2021), slightly above the 3% threshold set by the Fiscal Responsibility Act 2007 (FRA).

The President, however, insisted that this was necessary to tackle the security problems prevalent in the country.

Finance Act 2021

In order to achieve the revenue projections in the 2022 budget, the Finance Act took effect from the 1st January 2022 and introduces amendments to some tax laws.

The Finance Act amends the: Capital Gains Tax Act (CGTA); Companies Income Tax Act (CITA); Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA); Personal Income Tax Act (PITA); Stamp Duties Act (SDA); Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act [FIRSEA]; Tertiary Education Trust Fund (Establishment) Act [TETFEA]; National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure Act (NASENI Act); Value Added Tax Act (VATA); Nigerian Police Trust Fund (Establishment) Act [NPTFEA]; Finance (Control and Management) Act [FCMA], and Insurance Act.

Conclusion

So, what do we expect to see this year?

  • Early passage of the budget will aid government in achieving its objectives.
  • Enforcement of amendments introduced by the Finance Act, 2021.
  • Removal of petrol and electrical tariff subsidies may contribute to inflation.
  • Government driving heavy revenue generation by paying particular attention to tax compliance and remittances.
  • There may be a downward review on tax incentives like Pioneer Status and tax incentives for petroleum companies.
  • Revenue generation from the growing investment in the Nigerian technology ecosystem by the introduction of taxes to foreign technology companies with significant economic presence in Nigeria.
  • Leveraging on implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) to enhance customs revenue.
  • Focus on tackling insecurity.
  • Introduction of major projects in the education and health sectors.

HOW TO GET STARTED

Do you need to know more about the Appropriation Act? Our Finance  team is available to support you.

You may contact our team on: Email: info@dealhqpartners.com Telephone: +234 1 4536427 or +234 9087107575

Click here to download PDF

Season 1 Episode 5 – Unpacking Nigeria’s 2022 Budget: Fiscal & Economic Implications for Nigerian Businesses

Simply is a sponsored podcast of DealHQ Partners, where we engage thought leaders on trending issues around law and business in the most simplistic manner.

On episode 5, catch our Orinari Horsfall as he leads Ugochukwu Obi-Chukwu, Partner and Founder at Nairametrics Financial Advocates, in a conversation around the recently enacted Appropriation Act 2022. The conversation compares Nigeria’s fiscal plan for 2022 to peer nations  it also assesses the capacity of the Federal Government’s expenditure plan to  improve the nations volatile economy whilst navigating the economic implications of key policy metrices on the citizens, local businesses and  investors

 

Listen here:   linktr.ee/DealHQ

 

 

DealHQ Partners Law Undergraduate Essay Competition 2021

The 2021 DealHQ Partners Law Undergraduate Essay Competition is now open to 300 – 500 level law undergraduates across all Nigerian Universities.

Qualified candidates are required send in their submissions on or before 6th of October, 2021 to essays@dealhqpartners.com

To participate, Candidate must:

  1. Be a law student between 300-500 level in a Nigerian university with a valid student identity card;
  2. Follow all DealHQ  Partners’ Social Media Pages (LinkedIn, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, Youtube);
  3. Submit an essay in word and pdf format  on the topic “AFCFTA: The Role of Law and Policy in Driving Competitiveness for Nigerian Businesses
    • i.  Maximum of 2500 words (excluding infographics, graphs or charts which may be included to reinforce your thoughts or related data)
    • ii.  Font: Candara
    • iii. Font size: 12
    • iv.  Line spacing: single
    • v.   Alignment:  all text must be justified
    • vi.  Data references must be from verifiable sources
    • vii. Essay must be marked with candidates full name (as seen on Student ID Card) and Matriculation Number

4. Send entries accompanied with a scanned copy of student ID and social media handle to: essays@dealhqpartners.com on or before 11th of October, 2021.

  • -Top 20 entries will make it to the pre-qualification stage.
  • -Top 10 entries will make it to the Formal Review Stage
  • -Top 5 entries will make it to the final presentation/award stage
  • -Winners will be announced in October 2021.

*Strict adherence with submission guidelines is required, Defective submissions will be disqualified.

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE “E-NAIRA”

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE “E-NAIRA”

In response to the global rise in the use of digital payment solutions and the cryptocurrency market, the Central Bank of Nigeria (“CBN”) has created the eNaira, in a project termed “Project Giant”, which will be launched on 1st October 2021. In furtherance of this, the CBN engaged a global fintech firm Bitt Inc, as the technical partner for the development of the digital currency. The rationale behind the eNaira is to promote and facilitate the cashless culture amongst Nigerians while keeping up with contemporary economies of the world and maintaining the value of the Nigerian currency/foreign reserve. The eNaira is expected to aid financial inclusion, improve payment efficiency, improve revenue and tax collection, and aid targeted social interventions.It is noteworthy that various central banks worldwide are currently developing and issuing their central bank digital currency (CBDC). Some of these countries include China (digital yuan), Ghana (eCedi), Tunisia (eDinar) Senegal (eCfa), Tunisia (Petra), Dubai (emCash) amongst others.

CBDCS AND CRYPTOCURRENCIES

Although a digital currency, the eNaira is different from other cryptocurrencies using blockchain technology, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, in that it is issued and regulated by a sovereign authority. The eNaira users will not be anonymous, i.e., the users will undergo an onboarding exercise and will provide identifying information such as BVN or NIN, as the case may be. The personal account details and transaction activity of every user of the eNaira system will be monitored by the CBN.

In addition, the eNaira is fiat currency and is not subject to the volatility associated with the digital currency market; the value of the eNaira will be at par with the value of the Naira and will be subject to the appreciation and devaluation of the Naira currency.

E-NAIRA DESIGN FEATURES 

In a bid to set out the eNaira as distinct, the CBN introduced certain features in the eNaira Design, these features include:

  1. It is a legal tender;
  2. It is subject to parity of value, which is pegged to the value of Naira;
  3. It operates on a tiered structure for consumers;
  4. It operates with an account-based wallet;
  5. It possesses a transaction limit for customers, determined by their applicable tier;
  6. It maintains a tiered AML/KYC approach (NIN, BVN as unique identifiers);
  7. It is a non-Interest bearing CBDC;
  8. It ensures settlement finality; and
  9. It is value-based.

HOW WILL E-NAIRA OPERATE

As the eNaira is an electronic currency, consumers will be required to download the electronic wallet and get onboarded into the system through an invitation link received from their financial institution. Once the process has been successfully completed, users will be able to commence electronic financial transactions with the eNaira. Users can fund their eNaira wallet through their financial institution.

E-NAIRA PARTICIPANTS 

There are several stakeholders involved in the operation of the eNaira model which take on the following roles:

  1. Monetary Authority (CBN): The CBN has the sole responsibility to mint, issue, distribute, redeem, destroy the eNaira and act as digital currency manager by executing and managing digital currency transactions. It will also manage the storage of transaction data on the Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain, the blockchain ledger the eNaira will operate on.
  2. Financial Institutions: Financial Institutions facilitate the participation of end users in the eNaira technology. They serve digital currency managers by carrying out the following roles:
    1. Requesting eNaira from the CBN and issuing to users;
    2. Managing digital currency across branches;
    3. Conducting Know-Your-Customer (KYC) activities;
    4. Conducting identity and Anti- Money Laundering (AML) compliance activities.
  1. Government/ Government Agencies: The government and relevant government agencies are end-users of the eNaira technology and may use the platform for the following purposes:
    1. Processing out going payments such as salaries and interventions; and
    2. Receiving incoming payments from consumers.
  2. Businesses and Merchants: Merchants and business will use the eNaira technology to process potentially swifter and lower cost payments from consumers. The eNaira will support payment options such as POS, remote pay and other online payment capabilities.
  3. Consumer (Banked and Unbanked Consumer): Individual consumers whether having a bank account or not are allowed to engage in several transactions involving other consumers or directly with financial institutions using the eNaira. They will be able to send and receive eNaira in their eNaira wallets and also process payments.

THE E-NAIRA WALLET

In a bid to safeguard the eNaira and for convenience, a special feature is being introduced, which is the eNaira wallet, a virtual enclosure where every consumer or user of the eNaira platform can comfortably track and manage available eNaira funds. It is expected that there will be no service charge for wallet-to-wallet transactions.

It is important to note that the licensed Financial Institutions shall be responsible for providing their customers with their eNaira Wallets.

PAYMENT FEATURES

Users will be able to engage in a number of payment transactions with the eNaira, including:

  1. E-Naira wallet to eNaira wallet payments;
  2. E-naira wallet to bank account payments;
  3. Bank account to eNaira wallet payments;
  4. User E-naira wallet to Ministry, Departments and Agency (MDA) eNaira wallet payments;
  5. MDA eNaira wallet to user eNaira wallet payments;
  6. E-Naira to cash conversion;
  7. cash to eNaira conversions;
  8. FX to eNaira conversion (through the Central Bank); and
  9. FX to eNaira Wallet payment (through International Monet Transfer Operators).

ON-BOARDING A CONSUMER ON THE E-NAIRA SERVICE

As a way of popularizing the eNaira initiative within the Nigerian citizenry, the several financial institutions, particularly banks, are directed to encourage the participation of their customers in the eNaira service and send out invitation codes to verified and validated customers. This makes the process easier as customers with already generated codes have a rather seamless onboarding.

RETENTION OF E-SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS

Under the eNaira system, existing infrastructure for electronic settlement systems such as the NIBSS and other switching platforms will be retained and integrated into the implementation of the eNaira.

CONCLUSION

Although the eNaira project is novel and still budding, it is interestingly one project that appears promising especially for the Nigerian economy. There are a number of obvious challenges to its widespread acceptance such as the high rate of technology illiteracy amongst the citizenry, the unrestrained monitoring of transaction activities in the eNaira system, which almost defeats the point of digital currency as is widely accepted, and lack of access by users to the ledger records. There are however some positives. Other than ensuring potentially swifter and cheaper payments, the eNaira provides relative value stability (subject always to the inflationary nature of the Naira), will be an officially accepted legal tender, and possesses an anti-fraud management system for the protection of users.

 

HOW TO GET STARTED

Do you need to know more about the eNaira? Our Technovation team is available to support you. You may contact our team on: Email: info@dealhqpartners.com Telephone: +234 1 4536427 or +234 9087107575

Click here to download PDF

 

Season 1 Episode 2 – AFCFTA: Leveraging Technology to achieve regional competitiveness

Simply is the sponsored Podcast of DealHQ Partners, where we engage thought leaders on trending issues around law and business in the most simplistic manner.

Our Tosin Ajose joins Mrs. Nkemdilim Uwaje Begho, the CEO of Future Software Resources Limited and a Non-Executive Director in Stanbic IBTC Bank who is recognized as a  seasoned digital transformation executive and one of Forbes top 10 female tech founder in Africa in conversations around the Africa Continental Free Trade Agreement and the role of technology in achieving competitiveness in Africa’s new borderless and integrated market.

This episode examines the role of digital in fast-tracking the gains of AFCFTA, how technology and innovation will facilitate connectedness and a truly homogeneous market, big data, data share, and regional collaboration, and how Nigeria can position itself for competitive advantage in the free zone

 

Listen here:   linktr.ee/DealHQ

 

 

UNDERSTANDING NON-FUNGIBLE TOKENS(NFTs)

 

WHAT ARE NON-FUNGIBLE TOKENS?

Non-Fungible Tokens are cryptographic tokens created using blockchain technology. They represent and uniquely describe a valuable digital asset with special distinct features that allow for traceability and identification of the underlying asset which it represents (this underlying asset could be digital or a tangible real-life asset such as a vehicle, a gadget, a literal work or real estate).
The non-fungibility of these cryptographic tokens distinguishes them from other common cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin or ethereum which are created in multiples, each having the same features as all the others in circulation and each coin being of equal value. An NFT is encoded with an “indivisibility feature” i.e. the token cannot be broken into smaller elements of a whole such as you would a bitcoin (which can be broken into 100,000,000 satoshis) with each bearing a corresponding value of the fraction of a bitcoin. Each NFT is unique, exclusive and can only be transferred as a whole.

Nonfungible.com a website that tracks NFT marketplaces represents that the current NFT Market is worth over USD250 Million. For a market that was completely non-existent before 2017, it is expected that the market will balloon in geometric progression because of the boundless opportunity it opens for the trade of digital assets in a secure and efficient manner. Especially the possibility of easily converting all forms of assets into NFTs.

WHAT ARE THE KEY FEATURES OF A NON-FUNGIBLE TOKEN?

i. Uniqueness
The metadata attached to an NFT allows it to be defined by its unique features such that it can be clearly distinguished from other assets.

ii. Rarity
For NFTs it is impossible to create or reproduce the subject asset (there will always, only be a single version of the asset on the blockchain). This specifically is what influences the value of NFTs and makes them desirable to collectors.

iii. Indivisibility
An NFT cannot be split into smaller units of a whole. An NFT can only be held or transferred as a whole.

iv. Value
Only assets likely to be deemed valuable in the NFT marketplace may be converted to NFTs.

ARE ALL NFTS BACKED BY A TANGIBLE UNDERLYING ASSET?

An NFT is usually backed by an underlying asset which could be digital (such as digital art) or tangible real-life assets (such as an automobile or real estate). As previously explained the distinctive information relating to the asset is encoded into metadata on a blockchain platform. It is important for a buyer to understand the exact nature of the asset that is being acquired and to ensure that the smart contract purchased actually transfers legal and beneficial interest in the intended underlying asset and that the metadata are not a mere description of the same. It has been the case that some undiscerning buyers have acquired a mere description of an asset rather than the asset itself

WHAT NATURE OF LEGAL INTEREST DO I ACQUIRE WHEN I BUY AN NFT?

The Buyer of an NFT often expects to acquire the original, rare, and unique form of the underlying asset which the cryptotoken represents (if it is an artwork the original copy as digitally signed by the artist with a digital proof of authenticity and uniqueness in the form of metadata). The asset itself may not always be encoded into the Ethereum blockchain itself.
In simple terms, the NFT buyer acquires simply a smart contract on blockchain which contains metadata with the name of the asset, description of the asset, and a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier which provides technical details about how the asset works and in some cases link to an IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) a protocol that allows for the creation of permanent, immutable links to the blockchain where the asset is emplaced.

HOW IS THE VALUE OF AN NFT DETERMINED?

An NFT’s value is driven by demand and the value placed on it by potential buyers. There is therefore no empirical basis for determining its value, it remains very speculative. Offer prices are often driven by sentiments and its inherent features of rarity and uniqueness. A popular example is a digital collage created by the artist Beeple which after being converted to an NFT was traded for USD69Million at a public auction that started with a usd100 bid called the beginning of the Digital Collectibles craze. Or Jack Dorsey’s (Founder of Twitter) first tweet which he converted to an NFT and sold for USD2.9Million.

HOW DOES THE NFT MARKET PLACE OPERATE?

The NFT Marketplace is a virtual platform/website where NFTs can be traded, and where market participants take a sell or buy position and transact with each other via their digital wallets using cryptocurrencies as the medium of exchange. Whilst most marketplaces will trade a wide range of NFTs some operate as niche markets trading only one homogeneous category of NFTs a good example is Looking Glass Factory, a site that trades only digital holograms.

Some of the most common NFT marketplaces are:
i. Opensea, which is acclaimed as the largest NFT marketplace trading a variety of NFTs including art, virtual worlds, sports, trading cards, and other forms of collectibles. On Opensea, collectibles can be listed at a fixed price or for auction;
ii. Rarible, another popular marketplace that is community owned. It trades several categories of NFTs including art, photography, games, metaverses, music, domains, and memes amongst others;
iii. SuperRare is a marketplace for people to buy and sell unique, single-edition digital artworks. Each artwork is authentically created by an artist in the network and tokenized as a crypto-collectible digital item that you can own and trade;
iv. Atomic Market another popular platform is a shared liquidity marketplace that feeds other marketplaces. It allows its users to tokenize and create the digital asset and thereafter sell or auction the asset;                                         v. Another common platform “valuables” is a niche market solely for trading tweets.

NFT marketplaces have become mainstream in the crypto space whilst NFTs have become the most trending asset class of 2021, sparking the interest of traditional investors and several high net worth individuals.

HOW ARE NFTs CLASSIFIED?

The subject of the classification of NFTs remains quite unsettled, however as the market deepens we expect more clarity around their classification. A school of thought argues that NFTs are securities in respect of which local securities law should apply, others argue that they are simply a digital identifier of any form of asset whose legal title is transferrable. The test of whether an NFT will be classified as security will depend on:
i. The purpose for which it was created: If the NFT is being created and sold as a way for members of the public to earn investment returns with a line of recourse to the issuer it will be more likely to be considered a security. Especially if the smart contract has features of an investment contract.
ii. How it is traded: where an NFT is traded on a marketplace that operates similarly to exchanges and capital trade points shares where other securities or commodities are traded, it is likely to be classified as security especially where there exists is a secondary market feature on the trading platform.

WHAT FORMS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO NFTs?

The storage of NFTs on a blockchain ledger provides a way for asset holders to establish proof of ownership and possession with the innate benefit of immutability and security. It is important to understand the bundle of intellectual property rights which may be applicable NFTs or transferrable to a buyer.

Patent: Where the mining of an NFT or the cryptotoken involves innovation that solves a technical problem, it may be possible to patent the innovation subject to meeting the applicable registration criteria. The patent right is likely to remain proprietary to the creator.

Copyright: In relation to copyright, the metadata related to an NFT are by themselves a creative expression over which the creator automatically acquires exclusive copyright. There is a marked distinction between ownership of the NFT and ownership of the content in the metadata. Where not expressly assigned in the ‘smart contract’ between the creator and the buyer, any incidental copyright remains with the owner. The owner of the copyright remains the only party who can reproduce, make derivative works of, perform, display or distribute copies of the content. Where an NFT relates to artistic or literary work, it is curious what nature of interest is transferred to a buyer if he is not granted the intellectual property right in the work whether in form of a full assignment or a license to use.
Trademarks: In relation to trademarks, NFT creators may protect the name or other graphic property in the work by registering the name or the visual representation.

CONCLUSION
Even though Non-Fungible Tokens are gaining popularity and momentum as a digital asset class, it is no gain saying that the market is new and evolving. Market regulations are therefore still at infancy. At best, the law and regulation applicable to the class of underlying asset will apply to all related transactions. It remains important to exercise caution and seek professional advise when dealing in NFTs especially to guarantee that a buyer of an NFT actually acquires the intended interest in the subject underlying asset.

 

HOW TO GET STARTED

Do you need to know more about NFTs? Our Technovation team is available to support you.
You may contact our team on: Email: info@dealhqpartners.com Telephone: +234 1 4536427 or +234 9087107575

Click here to download PDF

 

Simply by DealHQ Podcast – Cryptocurrencies and the Nigerian Financial Market

Simply is the sponsored Podcast of DealHQ Partners, where we engage thought leaders on trending issues around law and business in the most simplistic manner.

In this maiden episode, Our Lead Advisor, Tosin Ajose is in conversation with Mr. Michael Ugwu, the Founder and CEO of Freeme Digital Limited and pioneer General Manager for Sony Music Entertainment West Africa, a venture capital investor and cryptocurrency enthusiast discussing issues bothering on cryptocurrency adoption, market trends, trading, counterparty risks and regulations from a Nigerian perspective and from a broader Africa wide view.

The whole world acknowledges the unprecedented growth in the global cryptocurrencies MARKET with Nigeria recording over $400 million traded in 2020 alone inspite of its low internet penetration. Statistics show a high level of enthusiasm around the adoption of cryptocurrencies, especially amongst the youth. This episode examines the cryptocurrency market in Nigeria from an investor’s perspective, opportunities in Decentralised Financing (DeFI), lessons, and opportunities for new adoptors.

Listen here:   linktr.ee/DealHQ

 

error: Content is protected !!